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VOLUME 82, 1971

R. H. Arnett, Jr., Editor


H. W. Allen S. S. Roback

E. J. Gerberg (Ent. Library)

Published By The American Entomological Society

at The Academy of Natural Sciences

1900 Race Street Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103, U. S. A.


No. 1 January (pp. 1-28) May 20, 1971

No. 2— February (pp. 29-56) May 28, 1971

No. 3— March (pp. 57-84) June 1, 1971

No. 4— April (pp. 85-112) June 8, 1971

No. 5— May (pp. 113-140) June 28, 1971

No. 6— June (pp. 141-168) June 28, 1971

No. 7— July (pp. 169-196) July 16, 1971

No. 8— August (pp. 197-224) August 17, 1971

No. 9 September (pp. 225-252) .... September 13, 1971

No. 10— October (pp. 253-280) October 12, 1971

No. 1 1 November (pp. 281-312) .... November 19, 1971

No. 12 December (pp. 313-332) December 9, 1971



Acarina, 183, 246

Acrididae, 253

Africa, insects and mammals, 208

Alabama, Tabanidae, 111

Alexander, Charles P., 48

3.0094 New exotic crane-flies (Tipulidae: Diptera) Part XXI, 113-120.

Alexander, Gordon

3.0134 High altitude entomologist, 279-280. Alley, Wayne P.

3.0095 An unusual escape mechanism displayed by the wolf spider Lycosa antelucana Montgom- ery, 1904, at Badwater, Death Valley, California, 138.

Alticinae, 17 Anderson, Robert S.

3.0082 Butterflies of the Serpentine Barrens of

Pennsylvania, 5-12. Anisoptera, 103 Anobiidae, 23

anomaly, in Strongylium texatum, 139 Aphididae, 176 Aphidoletcs, key to species, 177

new synonymy, 177

North America, 177 Arachnida, 138, 141, 327 Araneae, 141 araucaria forests, 197 Arizona, Limnia, new species, 169

new species, Diboiia, 17

scorpion, 281 Arnett, Ross H., Jr.

3.0101 Guide for writing descriptors, 26-27. Arpediothrips mojave. on vucca, 322 Atlanta, Thyridopteryx eplicmeraeformis, 151 Australia, Schedorhinotermcs derosus, 161

Bagworm, 209

emergence patterns, 219 bats, 208

behavior, cigarette beetle, 23, wolf spider, 138 Beshear, Ramona J. 165 bibliography, Classification Society, 331 biography, Chile, 197

M. S. Mani, 279 biology, Trichoptera, 313 biting insects, 228 blacklight traps, 309 blood sucking insects, 228 Brachycentrus etowakensis, Georgia, 313 Brazil, Strongylium texatum, 139 Buthidae, 281 butterflies, 5

see Lepidoptera Bryon Bogs, Ontario, Carabidae, 225

California, Cricotopus spp., 85

new species Paraleucopus, 1

wolf spider, 138 Carabidae. 225 Cecidomyiidae, 177

Ccntruroidex nciilpturatus. color phases, 281 Centnirus, 281 Ceratopogonidae, 229 Chamaemyiidae, 1 Chernrtidae, 332, 327

Chicago, Thyridopteryx ephcrneracformis, 151 Chile, biogeography, 197

entomofaunae regions, 197 Chironomidae, 85 chromosomes, Odonata. 103 Chrysomelidae, 17 Clitinroidcs, type specimens, 39 Cicadellidae, 39

cigarette beetle, mating behavior, 23 classification, 331 Classification Society, 331 Coleoptera, 17, 23, 57, 132, 139, 160, 164, 197, 225

Colias philodice, false broods, 137

collecting, small, soft-bodied insects, 309

Collembola, 147

Colombia, Polities spp., 274

Cricotopus infuscatus group, California, 85

Ctenuchidae, 135

Curculionidae, 197

Cutler, Bruce

3.0102 The spider genus Semiopyla (Araneae:

Salticidae), 141-146. Cyrtolobus maxinei, female, 323

spp., key, 323

Danaidae, 135

Data Documents for Systematic Entomology, 28, 42,

48, 140, 196.

Delaware Valley, butterflies, 5 Dennis, Clifford ].

3.0128 The female of Cyrtolobus maxinei Dennis

(Homoptera, Membrancidae), 323-325. Dermaptera, 208 descriptors, 26 diapause, 13 Diaspididae, 165

Diboiia, new species, Arizona, Wyoming, Montana, 17 Diptera, 1. 29, 85, 111, 113, 169, 117, 229 DNA, in mason bee sperm, 275 dragonflies. Minnesota, 103

North Dakota, 103

see Odonata, 103, 133

Ecology, Korean Orthoptera, 253

Elateridae, 57

Elntobiiim abietinum, distribution in United States,


embryonic development, bagworm, 209 emendations, taxa, 164 emergence, stoneflies, 107 emergence patterns, bagworm, 219 Enns, Wilbur R., 246 entomofaunae regions. Chile, 197 Entomologist's Library, 50, 110, 112, 166, 182, 194, 278,

308, 312, 330 Entomologist's Record. 48 evergreen bagworm, 151

Fedde, Gerhard F.

3.0114 The spruce aphid. Elatohium abiclintim, observed in eastern USA, 176.

First International Congress of Systematic and Evolu- tionary Biology, 48

Fisher, T. W. and R. E. Orth

3.0110 A new species of Limnia Robineau-Des- voidy from Western North America (Diptera: Sciomyzidae), 169-175.

fixation, tissues, 157

Forcipomyia ssp., Neotropical, 229

forests, araucaria, 197 nothofagus, 197

Forrnicidae, 43

Freytag, Paul H.

3.0089 The type specimens of the genus Chun- roidcs (Homoptera: Cicadellidae), 39-41.

Frings. Hubert and Mablr

3.0108 CFAA— a fixing agent for insect tr ues, 157-159.

Fulgoroidea, 197

Gagne, Raymond J.

3.0115 The genus Aphidolctcs Kit-ffer (Diptera: Cicidomyiidae) in North America, 177-181.

Garcia, Cesar

3.0127 Polities spp. predatory- on adult Lepidop- tera, 274.

Gaufin. Arden R., 107

Georgia. Haliaspis spurtinae, 165 Trichoptera. 313

gerbil, 208

Gray, Richard E.

3.0096 "False brood" Colias philodice from New Hampshire (Lepidoptera, Pieridae, Coliadinae), 137.

Hadntrus aztecus, redescription, Mexico, 121 Hales, Donald C. and Arden R. Gaufin

3.0099 Observations on the emergence of two species of stoneflies, 107-109.

Haliaspis spartinae, habitat in Georgia, 165

hatching, spring, bagworm, 209

hatching time, bagworm, 209

Hayes, Kirby L. Ill

Heliconius cydno, on heliotrope, 135

heliotrope, Heliconius cydno, 135

Hemiptera, 228

high altitude entomology, 279

histological techniques, 157

Homoptera, 39, 160, 165, 176, 197, 323

Hopkins, Harry, 191. 326

Hoplitis anthocopoides, sperm, 275

host plant specialization, 13

Hubbard, C. Andresen, 326

3.0100 Word from Napoleon's prison island, 208, 218

Hung, A. Chang-Fu

3.0091 On the taxonomic status of Polyrhachis kirkae Donisthorpe and its presumed mimicry (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), 43-47.

3.0092 Cytological studies of five species of drag- onflies (Odonata: Anisoptera), 103-106.

Hymenoptera, 43, 160, 208, 274, 275 Hypogastrura, key to some species, 147 new species, North Carolina, 147

Immature stages, Trichoptera, 313

India, Tipulidae, 113

information storage and retrieval, 331

Isoperla petersoni, emergence, 107

Isoptera, 161, 208

Ithomiidae, 135

Judd, W. W.

3.0118 Studies of the Byron Bog in southwestern Ontario XLVI. Ground beetles (Carabidae) from the damp, wooded zone of the bog, 225-227.

Kime, Bernard H.

3.0105 Transpiration rates in Schedorhinotermes

derosus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), 161-163. Knutson, L. V.

3.0087 Puparia of Salpingogaster conopida and S.

texana, with notes on prey (Diptera: Syrphidae),


Lamprochernes levipalpus, Utah, 327

Lasioderma serricorne, mating behavior, 23

Lenko, Karol

3.0097 An antenna! anomaly in Strongylitim texa- tum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), 139-140.

Lepidoptera, 5, 135, 137, 151, 160, 209, 219, 274, 309 trap, 309

Letter to editor, 326

Limnia. new species from Arizona, 169

Louisiana, Odonata, 133

Loveridge. Arthur, 208

Lycosidae, 138

Macnamara, John P.

3.0113 Emendation of taxa of Micronesian Oede-

meridae (Coleoptera), 164. Mani, M. S., 279 mason bee, 275 Masters, John H.

3.0090 Heliconius cydno (Lepidoptera: Nymphal-

idae) attracted to Heliotrope, 135-136. mating behavior, Lasioderma serricorne, 23 Megachilidae, 275 de Meillon, Botha, 326 Membracidae, 323 Mexico, scorpion, 121, 132 Micronesia, Oedemeridae, 164

Mignot, Edward C.

3.0085 Revision of the North American species of Dibolia Latr. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Al- ticinae), 17-22.

Miller, Glen R., 253

mimicry, Polyrhachis spp., 43.

Minnesota, dragonflies, 103

mite, see Acarina, 246

mold, see Trichoderma, 183

Montana, new species Dibolia, 17

Morden, R. D. and G. ?. Waldbauer

3.0104 The developmental rates of Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis from four latitudes and notes on its biology (Lepidoptera: Psychidae), 151-156. 3.0109 Embryonic development time and spring hatching of Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Lepidoptera: Psychidae, 209-217. 3.0112 Seasonal and daily emergence patterns of adult Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Lepidop- tera: Psychidae), 219-224.

Moss, W. Wayne

3.0125 The Classification Society bibliography project, 331-332.

Muchmore, William B.

3.0130 A new Lamprochernes from Utah (Pseu- doscorpionida, Chernetidae), 327-329.

Nemoura cinctipes, emergence, 107

Neochrysops globosus, in Alabama, 111

New Hampshire, Colias philodice, 137

New York, new mite, 246

niche, 13

North Carolina, Hypogastrura spp., 147

North Dakota, dragonflies, 103

nothofagus forests, 197

notice, see Data Documents, 196

need short articles, 280 Nymphalidae, 135

O'Brien, Charles W.

3.0117 The biogeography of Chile through ento-

mofaunae regions, 197-207. Oedemeridae, 164 Odonata, 103, 133, 160 Orth, R. E., 169 Orthocladiinae, 85 Orthoptera, 229, 253

Paraleucopis, new species, California, 1

revision, 1

Parachernes sp., predator on thrips, 322 Payne, Thomas L., 308 Peloridiidae, 197 Pennsylvania, butterflies, 5 Phasmida, 229 Phasmidae, 229 phenology, 13 phoresy, 183 photoperiodism, 13 Physorhinus spp.. Central America, 57

descriptions, 57

North America, 57

South America, 57 Pieridae, 137

Pieris virginiensis, latent polyphenism, 13 Plecoptera, 107 Poduridae, 147 Polistes spp., Colombia, 274 polyphenism, 13 Polyrhachis kirkae, synonymy, 4.3

nigriceps, synonymy, 43 predator, Polistes spp., 274 preservation, animal specimens, 157 prey, Salpingogaster spp., 29 Pselliopus harberi, in North Carolina, 228 pseudoscorpion, thrips predation, 322 Pseudoscorpionida, 327 Psychidae, 151, 209, 219 puparia Salpingogaster spp., 29 Pyemotidae, 183

Pygmephorus mesembrinae. on mushrooms, 183

quadratus, on mushrooms, 183 Pygomorphidae, 253

Quercus grisea, host of Serica porcula, 132

Reduviidae, 228

Rentz, David C. and Glen R. Miller

3.0120 Ecological and faunistic notes on a collec- tion of Orthoptera from South Korea, 253-273.

Rhinotermitidae, 161

Saint Helena Island, 208

Salpingogaster, Neotropical, 29 spp., 29

salt marsh, Haliaspis S]Mrtinae, 165

salticid, monotypic genera, 141

Salticidae, 141

Sanderson, Milton W.

3.0088 The genus Serica recorded on Mexican mainland (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae ) , 132

Savannah, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis, 151

Scarabaeidae, 132

Schaaf, Dietrich

3.0056 Revision of the genus Physorhinus (Cole- optera, Elateridae) in North, Central and South America. Part II: Descriptions, 57-84.

Schedorhinotermes derosus, transpiration rates, 161

Schmidt, T. Otto and Robert C. Stockton

3.0123 Analysis of DNA in mason bee sperm (Hy- menoptera: Megachilidae), 275-277.

Sciomyzidae, 169 scorpion, 281

see also Scorpionida, 121 Scorpionida, 121, 281 Semiopyla, revision, 141 Serpentine barrens, 5 Serica porcula, host, 132

Mexico, 132 Siphonaptera, 208 Shapiro. Arthur M.

3.0083 Occurrence of a latent polyphenism in

Pieris virginiensis (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), 13-16. Smit, F. G. A. M.

3.0111 Hubbard's eulogy on Harry Hopkins, 191-


Smith, Lawrence W., Jr., 23 Snetsinger, Robert, 183 South Korea, Orthoptera, 253 specialization, host plant, 13 sperm, Hoplitis anthocopoides, 275 spiders, see Arachnida, 138, 141, 327 springtail, see Collembola, 147 spruce aphid, see Elatokium abietinum, 176 Stahnke, Herbert L.

3.0106 The redescription of the scorpion Hadrurus

aztecus (Vejovidae), 121-131.

3.0132 Some observatons of the genus Centruro-

ides Marx ( Buthidae, Scorpionida) and C. sculp-

turattts Ewing, 281-307. Stewart, J. W. and Thomas L. Payne

3.0124 Light trap screening for collecting small soft-bodied insects, 308-311.

Steyskal, George C.

3.0080 The genus Paraleucopis Mallock (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae ) with one new species, 1-4.

stick-ticks, see Forcipomyia spp., 229

Stockton, Robert C., 275

stoneflies, see Plecoptera, 105

stream-dwellers, Odonata, 133

Strongylium texatum, antenna! anomaly, 139

Sublette, James E. and Mary F. Sublette

3.0093 The Orthocladiinae (Chironomidae: Dip- tera) of California I. The Cricotopiis infuscatus group, 85-102.

Sublette. Man' F., 85

Syrphidae, 29'

Tabanidae, 111 technique, collecting, 309

Tenebrionidae, 139, 197 Tenuipalpidae, 246 termite, Australia', 161 see Isoptera, 161 Tetranychidae, 246 Tettigoniidae, 253 Texas, thrips, 322 Thewke, Siegfried and Wilbur R Enns

3.0121 Two new species of false spider mites (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae) and a new Tetranychid distribution record from New York State, 246-252.

Thomhill. Albert R. and Kirby L. Hayes

30079 A new locality record for Neochrysops glohosus Walton (Diptera: Tabanidae), 111-112.

Thripidae, 322

thrips, on Yucca canerosana, 322

Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis, developmental rates, 151

embryonic development, 209 emergence patterns, 219

Thysanoptera, 322

Tipulidae, 113

new species, India, 113

Tippins, H. H., and Ramona J. Beshear

3.0103 On the habitat of Haliaspi<; sjiartinae (Comstock) (Homoptera: Diaspididae), 165.

Titles, 26

Tobin, Edward N. and Lawrence W. Smith, Jr.

3.0086 Note on the mating behavior of the ciga- rette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne (F. ): Ano- bidae), 23-25.

trap for Tabanidae, 111

trap modification, for small Lepidoptera, 309

Triatoma sanguisuga. in North Carolina, 228

Trichoderma, mold genus, 183

Trichoptera, 313

Trypetoptera canadensis, terminah'a, 169

Utah, Pseudoscorpionida,. 327 stoneflies, 107

Vance, Thomas C.

3.0148 Pseudoscorpion predation on thrips, 322. Vejovidae, 121

Venezuela, Heliconius cydno, 135 venon, scorpion, 281

Waldbauer, G. P., 183

walking stick insects, see Orthoptera, 229

Wallace, J. B.

3.0126 A new species of Brachycentrus from Georgia with two unusual larval characters (Tri- choptera: Brachycentridae), 313-321.

Walls, Jerry G. and Maleta Walls

3.0081 Some stream-dwelling dragonflies from Allen pari«h, Louisiana, 1.33-134.

Walls, Maleta, 133

Wicht, M. C., Jr. and Robert Snetsinger

3.0116 Observations on mushroom-infesting Pye- motid mites in the United States, 183-190.

Wirth, Willis W.

3.0119 A review of the "stick-ticks," neotropical biting midges of the Forcipomyia subgemis Afi- crohelea parasitic on walking stock insects (Dip- tera: Ceratopogonidae), 229-245.

wolf spider, Lycosa antelucana, behavior, 138

Wray, David L.

3.0098 Additions to the North Carolina faunal list,


3.0107 A unique species of the genus Hypogas-

trura from North Carolina (Collembola, Podur-

idae), 147-150.

3.0122 Two cases of Hemiptera biting humans. 228.

writing procedure, 26

Wyoming, new species of Dibolia, 17

Yucca canerosana. thrips, 322

Zetus exsanguis, in North Carolina, 228












EDWARD C. M I G N O T , p . 17




ROSS H.ARNETT,Jr.,p.26 Data Documents for Systematic Entomology, p. 28



Edited, 1890-1910, by Henry Skinner (1861-1926); 1911-1944, by Philip P. Calvert (1871-1961); 1945-1967, by R. G. Schmieder (1898-1967).

ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS is published monthly by The American Entomological Soc- iety at the Academy of Natural Sciences, 1900 Race Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103, U. S. A. Editorial Staff: H. W. Allen, S. S. Roback, and R. H. Arnett, Jr. (Editor); E. J. Gerberg (Editor, The Entomologist's Library).

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EDITORIAL POLICY: Manuscripts on insect life and related terrestrial arthropods are appropriate for submission to ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. Titles should be carefully composed to reflect the true contents of the article, and be kept as brief as possible. A short informative abstract (not a descriptive abstract) of about 150 words should be sup- plied on a separate sheet, complete with title and ending with the authors name and address. In addition, the author should supply a list of descriptors, or key words at the end of the abstract. The author's complete mailing address, including zip code number, should be given as a footnote to the article. All papers describing new taxa should include enough information to make them useful to the non-specialist. Generally this requires a key and a short review or discussion of the group, plus reference to existing revisions or monographs. Illustrations are almost always required. Articles of an archival nature, including new taxa as separate descriptions for validation, new distribution records, or records of specimens (Continued on back inside cover.)



George C. Steyskal-

Specimens of a small, shining black fly that "were hovering about the faces and getting into the eyes of workers" at the Boyd Desert Re- search Center, Riverside County, California, were recently sent to me. The species turned out to be an undescribed species of the genus Paraleucopis Malloch (1913). The genus has until now consisted of the sole species P. corvina Malloch, described from Kerr Ranch, New Mexico, 23 April 1910, taken on Yucca sp., together with one specimen from the same locality marked "from raven's nest, 5-4-1910." Of the 14 original specimens, 9 remain in the U.S. National Museum. A single specimen, not included with the type series, from Dallas, Texas, 6 May 1910, was also recorded with the original description. No addi- tional records have been noted.

The new species is sufficiently similar to P. corvina that all of the distinctive characters that I can discern may be cited in comparison with those of P. corvina, as follows.

Paraleucopis corvina Malloch (1913: 149)


Legs yellow; femora piceous medially; hind tibia sometimes brownish. Front as long as wide at level of anterior ocellus, orbits converging anteriorly at angle of 10-15° with each other, 1 small upper fo. Wing as in Fig. 1, length in male

'Accepted for publication: November 18, 1970 [3.0080].

-Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Entomology Research Division, Agr. Res. Serv., USDA. Mailing address: c/o U.S. National Museum, Washington, DC 20560.

Ent. News, 82: 1-4, 1971 1

Ent. News, Vol. 82, January 1971

FIGURES. 1-7, Details of Paralciicopis species. Paralcucopis corvina Malloch 1, wing; 2, oblique lateral view of male postabdomen (in plane of greatest ex- panse of surstylus); 3, dorsal view of female postabdomen; 4, spermathecae. Paraleucopis boijdcnsis, n. sp. 5, lateral and ventral views of male postabdomen; 6, dorsal ( left ) and ventral views of female postabdomen; 7, spermathecae.

1.8-2.0 mm, in female 2.0-2.15 mm. Male postabdomen (Fig. 2) with surstylus unguiform, curved posterad. Female postabdomen as in Fig. 3; spermathecae as in Fig. 4.

Paraleucopis boydensis, NEW SPECIES

(FIGURES 5-7) Legs yellow, femora and tibiae blackish except broadly at ends, last 2 tarsal

Ent. News, Vol. 82, Januanj 1971

segments sometimes brownish. Front as long as wide, virtually parallel-sided, with 2-3 distinct upper fo. Wing similar to that of P. corvina, but usually larger, length in male 1.8-2.33 mm, in female 2.0 to 2.5 mm. Male postabdomen (Fig. 5 ) with surstylus showing squarish posterior shoulder and digitiform anterior proc- ess. Female postabdomen as in Fig. 6; spermathecae 2, as in Fig. 7.

Holotype (male), allotype, and 4 male and 4 female paratypes, P. L. Boyd Desert Research Center, 3.5 m. S. Palm Desert, Riverside County, California, 26 April 1970 (Suzy and Saul Frommer); 1 male paratype, same locality, 17-26 April 1970, malaise trap, dry creek near Chilopsis, marker no. 57 (Saul Frommer and L. LaPre). Holotype, allotype, and 1 pair of paratypes, no. 71193 in U.S. National Museum of Natural History; remainder returned to Dr. Frommer, University of California at Riverside.

Relationships: McAlpine (1963), in erecting the subfamily Cremi- faniinae, referred only the genus Cremifania Czerny thereto, and stated that Sciochthis Malloch might possibly also be a member of that group. No additional data has come to hand regarding Sciochthis, but the genus Paralcucopis, retained in the subfamily Chamaemyiinae by McAlpine, with exceptions to the characters cited for that subfamily, must be referred to the Cremifaniinae. The additional data yielded by the present study show that Paraleucopis has all of the characters cited in McAlpine's key, except the armed aedeagus. The postocellar bristles are present, small and divergent; the proscutellum and post- humeral bristle are absent; the surstylus of the male is large and movable, and the aedeagal apodeme narrow and free, although with a short forwardly curved process, but hardly to be called fultelliform. I could find but 2 spermathecae in P. boydensis, but in P. corcina there is a small, rather rudimentary 3rd spermatheca.

The 2 genera now comprising the Cremifaniinae may be distin- guished as follows:

Vein Sc complete and strong to costa; pterostigma more than 1/3 as long as C from R, to R_.,; arista not more than 1.5 times as long as antenna, basally thickened; pteropleuron with 1 or more fine bristles; wholly dull flies with head largely yellowish

Cremifania Czerny

Vein Sc evanescent before attaining C; pterostigma very small; arista at least twice as long as antenna, slender; pteropleuron bare; shining flies, body wholly black

Paraleucopis Malloch

I am grateful to Saul Frommer for the privilege of examining the material upon which Paraleucopis boydensis is based and for permit- ting the retention of the holotype in the collections of the U.S. Na- tional Museum in company with that of the type species of its genus.

Ent. News, Vol. 82, January 1971


MCALPINE, J. F. 1963. Relationships of Cremifania Czerny (Diptera: Chamae- myiidae) and description of a new species. Canadian Entomol. 95: 239-253.

MALLOCH, J. R. 1913. A synopsis of the genera of Agromyzidae, with descrip- tions of new genera and species. Proc. United States Natl. Mus. 46: 127-154, pis. 4-6.

2.0080. The Genus Paraleucopis Malloch (Diptera, Chamaemyiidae), with one new species.

ABSTRACT. Paraleucopis boydensis, new species, is described from specimens that were hovering about the faces and getting into the eyes of workers at Boyd Desert Research Center, Riverside County, California. It is distinguished from the type and previously sole known species of Paraleucopis, P. corvina Malloch, principally by details of the male and female postabdomens. Notes and figures of the latter species are also given. The genus is referred to the subfamily Cremi- faniinae. GEORGE C. STEYSKAL, c/o U.S. National Museum, Washington, DC 20560.

Descriptors: Diptera; Chamaemyiidae; revision of Paraleucopis; Paraleucopis boydensis, new species; California.



Robert S. Anderson2

The Philadelphia area is characterized by considerable diversity of butterfly species because the juxtaposition of two major ecological subdivisions of the United States produces a variety of habitats. These physiographic areas (the Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Pied- mont region of the Appalachians) are divided by the Fall Line lying just South of the serpentine barrens which are found in certain parts of Delaware and Chester Counties, Pennsylvania. Four years of field work in these areas in Lima and Media, and particularly in the John J. Tyler (Painter) Arboretum in Lima, form the basis of this report. The barrens occur locally and are named for the underlying forma- tions of serpentine or soil derived from this rock. The soil, for the most part, does not support the growth of trees except for occasional Willows and clumps of Sassafras. Various grasses cover the area as well as heavy growths of Ground Pink (Plilox subulata) and patches of Highbush Blackberry (Rulms allegheniensis), Choke Cherry (Pru- nus virginiana) and various ferns. The edges of the barrens, espe- cially near streams, are characterized by the presence of Milkweed (Asclepias sijriaca] and Joe-Pye-Wecd (Eupatorium purpureum). Many species of butterflies are attracted to the open terrain of the barrens and visit wild flowers or maintain definite territorial areas within the area. Woodland species are often found at the periphery; many strong fliers follow prescribed routes which are retraced throughout the day.

Accepted for publication: November 27, 1970 [3.0082].

-Variety Club Heart Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minne- sota, Minneapolis, MN 55455.

Ent. News, 81, 5-12, 1971 5

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The food plants of many of the butterflies seen in the serpentine barrens are to be found in the surrounding wooded areas, old fields, roadsides, and waste places; however, all the species described herein were observed regularly within the barrens.

Family SATYRIDAE (The Meadow Browns) Euptychia cymela Cramer (Little Wood Satyr)

A fairly common insect near the wooded borders of barrens, as well as in low brush. The flight is typically fluttering and erratic; the flight pattern is low, punc- tuated with many periods of rest. E. cymela is single brooded, feeding on grasses and overwintering as a partly grown larva. The adults may be found from mid May until early August.

Cercyonis alope Fabricius (Common Wood Nymph)

Very common, having weak flight similar to £. cymela, but easily distinguished by its larger size. It is found in the open areas of the barrens as well as near and in the woodlands. This butterfly is morphologically variable, individuals differ markedly as to shade of brown and size of ocelli on the wings. These forms par- tially reflect climatic and seasonal changes, also there is probably some overlap with a Southern species, C. pegala. Alope is single brooded in this region, where it is a breeding resident. The larvae feed on grasses after hibernation; adults fly from June to early September.

Family DANAIDAE ( The Monarchs ) Danaus plexippus Linnaeus (Monarch )

The larvae feed on Milkweeds ( Asclepias spp. ) in the serpentine barrens. Noxious substances contained in the Milkweed are assimilated protecting both larvae and adults from predation. The Monarch is bivoltine with adults flying from June to October; however, it is most common in the late fall. This strong and tireless flier is strongly attracted to Milkweed and Butterfly Weed ( A. t u- berosa). The migratory habits of this familiar species are well known. Northern migration in the spring is made individually or in small groups, in the fall great swarms of Monarchs move South.

Family NYMPHALIDAE (The Nymphs)

Subfamily NYMPHALINAE Speyeria cybele Fabricius ( Great Spangled Fritillary )

Often seen flying rapidly and high, frequently over a prescribed route. This Fritillary freely visits flowers such as Milkweed and Joe-Pye-Weed. The open- ness of the barrens is attractive to S. cybele whose food plant (Viola spp.) is found in the nearby wooded areas. It is on the wing from June to September.

Speyeria aphrodite Fabricius (Aphrodite Fritillary)

Much rarer than S. ctjbcle, which it strongly resembles in flight. Its habits and food plants are the same as S. cybele.

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Phydodes thaws Drury (Pearl Crescent)

P. tJiaros is very common in this area, usually very active resting frequently on rocks, leaves, bare soil, or at mud puddles. A very pugnacious insect, it vigor- ously pursues any passing butterfly regardless of size, as well as dragonflies and grasshoppers. It is triple brooded with the eclosion of broods overlapping so that adults fly from late April to November. The larvae feed on Aster spp. found in abundance in the woods.

Polygonia interrogationis Fabricius (Question Mark)

Rather rare in the serpentine barrens, although generally common in Penn- sylvania. It may be encountered from July to September flying swiftly along paths, stopping occasionally to rest on leaves in the sun. Nettle ( Urtica spp. ) and Elm (Ulmus spp.) are the local food plants.

Polygonia comma Harris (Comma) Characteristics much as P. interrogationis but P. comma is more rarely seen.

Nymphalis antiopa Linnaeus ( Mourning Cloak )

Frequently one of the first butterflies seen in spring as faded and torn hiber- nators appear on sunny days in February and March. It often flies in clumps of trees alighting on trunks. The first new brood emerges in June or July, the second brood is rarely seen since individuals hibernate immediately upon emerging in August or September. Adults are rarely attracted to flowers; larvae feed on Wil- low ( Salix spp.).

Vanessa atalanta Linnaeus (Red Admiral)

A swift flier addicted to flowers especially Thistles (Cirsium spp.). Frequents open, sunny areas in the barrens, but also found in the surrounding woods. Adult hibernators are seen in April, hibernating pupae emerge in May. One brood flies in June and July, a second smaller brood is seen in August or September. The food plant is Stinging Nettle (Urtica spp.).

Vanessa virginiensis Drury ( American Painted Lady )

This active, flower-loving species flies from June to October with 2-3 broods. Considerable individual variation may be found, wet weather forms are larger and more brightly colored than the "dry" forms. The larvae feed on Everlastings (species of GnaphaUum, Antennaria, and Anaphalis), Ironwecd (Vernonia spp.), and Burdock (Arctium spp.).

Vanessa cardni Linnaeus (Painted Lady or Cosmopolite)

A wide-ranging, international butterfly preferring open fields in which it is an avid flower visitor. The numbers of V. cardni and V. virginiensis may fluctuate greatly from year to year. In Europe, V. cardui is noted for its migratory habits;

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however, it is apparently not migratory in this area. It shows great seasonal and individual variation. There are 3-4 broods with adults flying from May to Octo- ber. Thistles ( Cardius spp. and Cirsium spp. ) are the principle larval food.

Subfamily LIMENITINAE Limenitis arthemis astyanax Fabricius ( Red-Spotted Purple )

Although the Red-Spotted Purple is a strong and graceful flier, it is fond of sunning with partially spread wings. It is seen rarely at flowers. While it may be seen as early as June, it is more common from August to October. The food plants are Wild and Choke Cherry ( Primus serotina and P. virginiana ) .

Family LYCAENIDAE (The Gossamer- Winged Butterflies)

Subfamily THECLINAE ( Hairstreaks ) Calycopis cecrops Fabricius ( Red-Banded Hairstreak )

C. cecrops is not common in the barrens, but may be seen visiting flowers from August until October. The local food plant is Dwarf Sumac (Rhus copallina}.

Stn/mon melinus Hubner (Gray Hairstreak)

This fast-flying Hairstreak is seen frequently at flowers. It is bivoltine, adults fly from May to October. Its habit of grinding its hind wings together when at rest is shared by most other Hairstreaks. Larvae feed on a variety of plants in- cluding Hops (Humitlus sp.), Mallow (Malva sp. ), Knotweed (Pohjgonum sp. ), St. John's Wort (Hijpcricum sp. ), and Cultivated Beans (Phascolus sp.).

Strymon titus Fabricius (Coral Hairstreak)

Regularly found in the open areas of the serpentine barrens at flowers in July and August. The food plants are Cherry (Primus serotina and P. virginiana}.

Satyrium falacer Godart (Banded Hairstreak)

Morphologically variable and frequently difficult to differentiate from Satrium caryaevorus. Usually seen in open glades in woods at the edge of the barrens. Oak (Quercus spp.), Hickory (Carya spp.), and Butternut (Juglans cinerea) are the larval food plants. Adults fly in June and July.

Satyrium caryaevorus McDunnough ( Hickory Hairstreak ) Adults in July, habits and food are similar to S. falacer.

Subfamily LYCAENINAE ( Coppers ) Lijcaena phlaeas Linnaeus (American Copper)

This locally common species is as pugnacious as the Pearl Crescent. It stays in open fields, pausing at flowers between swift and erratic flights. There are at least three overlapping broods with adults from June to October. The food plant is Sheep Sorrel (Rumex acctosclla).

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Subfamily PLEBEIINAE ( Blues ) Everes comyntas Godart ( Eastern Tailed Blue )

This Blue may be seen in the barrens and the near-by woodland. There is much seasonal, individual, and sexual variation; females are often quite darkly pigmented. The food plants are Tick Trefoils (Dcsmodium spp. ) and Clovers (species of Trifolium, Mclilotus, and Lespedeza). Adults from May to October.

Lycacnopsis argiolus Linnaeus ( Spring Azure )

The Spring Azure can be seen as early as March, and is common until early October. This butterfly is more restricted to the woods than the Tailed Blue. Dogwood (Cornus florida), Sumac (Rhus sp. ), Blueberry (Vaccinium conjm- bosum), and many other food plants are abundant.

Family PAPILIONIDAE (Swallowtails) Papilio polyxenes Fabricius (Black Swallowtail)

P. polyxencs was seen more frequently in 1969 and 1970 than in previous years. It stays in the open areas of the barrens, flying swiftly when not visiting flowers. Adults have been seen from May to October. The larvae feed on mem- bers of the Carrot family (UmbcUifcrae).

Papilio glaucus Linneaus (Tiger Swallowtail)

P. glaucus is seen in fields and woods, a strong flier given to avid flower- visiting. The female shows sexual dimorphism with a dark form in addition to the familiar yellow phase. Dark females have been more numerous in recent years and are always more frequently seen in the latter portion of the summer. The Tiger Swallowtail flies from May to August. The larvae feed on various trees including Wild Cherry (Primus scrotina), Tulip Tree ( Liriodendron sp.), and Birch (Betula sp.).

Papilio troilus Linneaus (Spicebush Swallowtail)

Aside from P. glaucus, this is the most common Swallowtail in the serpentine barrens. It occurs with equal regularity in woods and open fields. It flies from June to mid-October and is not seen as frequently at flowers as other Papilionidae. Summer forms are larger and brighter than spring specimens. The food plants are Spicebush ( Lindera sp. ) and Sassafrass.

Family PIERIDAE (Whites and Sulphurs) Anthocharis genutia Fabricius ( Falcate Orange Tip)

While rare in Pennsylvania, the Falcate Orange Tip is locally common in the woods near the barrens in April. It is usually associated with Cat-Brier (Smilex glauca) thickets. It flies rather weakly and visits Bluets (Honstonia cacrulca) blooming in clearings. There is only one brood with adults emerging from over- wintering pupae in the early spring. Females lack the characteristic orange tip and are seldom seen on the wing. Larvae feed on Rock Cress (Arabis per-

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foliatum), Bitter Cress (Cardamine sp. ), Winter Cress (Barbarea vulgaris), and Shepherd's Purse (Capsella bursapastoris).

Colias curt/theme Boisduval (Alfalfa Butterfly)

A very common insect seen in grasses and on flowers of the serpentine barrens. It is subject to great individual variation. One quarter to one half of the females are white. Spring forms are often small with orange and yellow markings and re- duced black borders. To further complicate the situation, it readily hybridizes with Colias philodice and probably 10-20% of the specimens taken are hybrids. This butterfly has extended its range northeastwards following the planting of Alfalfa; it was uncommon in Pennsylvania before 1935, but is now firmly estab- lished. Adults are seen from April until November or December as a result of at least four overlapping broods. The food plants are Alfalfa (Medicago sp. ), White Clover (Trifolium repens), Sweet Clover (Melilotus sp.), and Crown Vetch (Coronilla sp. ).

Colias philodice Latreille (Common, Clouded, or Yellow Sulphur)

Extremely common with habits and seasons similar to the Alfalfa Butterfly. Many females are white, and both sexes are subject to much individual, seasonal, and local variation, as well as hybridization with C. eunjtheme. The food plant is primarily Clover (Trifolium sp.).

Eurema lisa Boisduval and Leconte (Little Sulphur)

Small and low flying, the Little Sulphur is not usually seen at flowers. Indi- viduals vary from yellow-orange to white. E. lisa is noted for its migratory habits in the southern part of its range, but not in this area. Adults fly from May to No- vember, but are most common in the fall. Larvae feed on False Sensitive Plant (Cassia nictitans) and Clover (Trifolium sp.).

Picris rapac Linneaus (Cabbage Butterfly)

This extremely common butterfly is seen everywhere in the area. Usually ob- served in the company of Sulphurs from March until mid-October. The larvae feed on many kinds of wild and cultivated Crucifcrae with a preference for Yellow Rocket ( Barbarea sp. ) .

Family HESPERIIDAE ( Skippers )

Subfamily PYRGINAE (Larger Skippers)

Epargtjreus clarus Cramer (Silver-Spotted Skipper)

A common skipper seen at flowers and sunning on the leaves of bushes and low trees. Flying from May to September with larvae on Locust (Robinia pscu- doacacia ) .

Achalarus lycidas Geyer ( Hoary Edge ) Frequently observed in the serpentine barrens. Its habits are similar to the

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Silver-Spotted Skipper; however, its flight is somewhat less energetic. Adults fly in June and July. The food plant is Tick Trefoil (Desmodium sp.).

Thorybes bathyllus Abbot and Smith (Southern Cloudy Wing)

Visits flowers in open fields from June to September. Larvae feed on a num- ber of Legumes.

Pyrgus communis Godart (Checkered Skipper)

This distinctive Skipper may be seen on low vegetation from July to Septem- ber. When not alarmed, its flight is not as fast and erratic as other Skippers. Food plants are Mallows (Malvaceae).

Pholisora catiilhis Fabricius (Sooty Wing)

Infrequently seen visiting flowers, but generally common in the area. Usually rests on low objects in the sun with open wings. Flying from late May to October, the larvae feed on Pigweed (Amaranthtts sp.) and Ragweed (Ambrosia sp. ) in the serpentine barrens.

Erynnis icelus Scudder and Burgess (Dreamy Dusky Wing)

Habits similar to the previous species. Found only in June in open areas and at mud puddles. Food plants are Birch (Betula spp.).

Subfamily HESPERIINAE (Smaller Skippers) Ancyloxipha nnmitor Fabricius (Least Skipper)

Usually quite common but frequently overlooked because of its small size and very low flying habits. It may be seen resting on grasses and often chases larger butterflies. Feeding on a number of grasses, adults fly from June to early No- vember.

Hesperia metea Scudder (Cobweb Skipper) Rare, irregularly seen in late May. Probably feeding on grass.

Hesperia sassacus Harris (Indian Skipper)

A showy skipper not often seen at flowers, but often sits in sun on low objects. Seasons and food preference similar to //. metea.

Polites coras Cramer (Yellow-Spotted Skipper)

This common Skipper is often observed on a number of wild flowers. It is seen in all parts of the barrens, particularly along paths and on roadsides. Flying from May to September, it is most common in the fall. Grasses make up the larval food.

Polites thcmistoclcs Latreille (Tawny-Edged Skipper)